Abstract

Incidence and risk factors predisposing to Retinopathy of prematurity and treatment outcome: A Retrospective cohort study

Purpose: Retinopathy of prematurity is a disorder of developing retina. The survival rate of preterm infants increased due to advance neonatal care, with a consequent increase in retinopathy of prematurity cases. The aim of our study was to access the incidence of ROP and its risk factors and outcome those who needed treatment.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study of preterm infant born in tertiary intensive care unit, was conducted from January 2017 to October 2020. 203 newborns were included based on the following criteria, Gestational age (GA) at birth of ≤35 weeks, birth Weight of ≤2000 gm and babies with GA>35 weeks and BW >2000 if the treating Paediatrician recommended ROP screening due to stormy course in NICU. Data were review to determine the incidence and risk factors of ROP. Neonates were followed up until diseases resolution or until treatment criteria were achieved. 

Results: Two hundred three babies were enrolled for the study. There were 125 (62.1%) males and 77 (37.9%) females. ROP was seen in 41 babies giving an incidence of 20.2%. About half of cases had stage 1 ROP (51.2%) followed by stage 2 (24.4%), APROP (22%) and stage 3 (2.4%). No case of stage 4 and stage 5 ROP were detected. 7 out of 41 ROP cases were type 1 disease with incidence of 3.4%, and received treatment. A significant association was noted between ROP and PDA, sepsis, PVL, BPD, RDS, Postnatal steroids, oxygen therapy blood transfusion, TPN (P <0.05). No significant association was found for PIH, Preeclampsia, GDM, receiving antenatal steroids, IVH, multiple gestations, SGA, NEC, invasive and non-invasive respiratory support need.

Conclusion: This study found incidence of any stage of ROP was 20.2% and incidence of type 1 disease was 3.4%. A significant association was noted between ROP and PDA, sepsis, PVL, BPD, RDS, Postnatal steroids, oxygen therapy blood transfusion, TPN.


Author(s):

Mittal Deepak, Sidana Poonam, Jain Mayank, Gupta Aparna, Mehta AP



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